Location: Off the east coast of Asia. Ring of Fire
Archipelago : Chain of over 3,000 Islands. Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido.
Mountains: 4/5 of land, most live on plains and river valleys. Terrace farming.
Lack of resources: Force Japan to look elsewhere - imperialism.
From China through Korea. Mixed w/ Japan’s traditions.
Form of Animism stressing link between people & nature.
Land Ownership: Shoguns distributed land to Daimyo in return for a promise to support.
Samurai: Warriors for the Daimyo
Shogun: Military leader. Actual ruler of Japan.
Bushido: Code of conduct for Samurai
Commodore Matthew Perry:
American, forced Japan to open ports to western trade.
Forced Shogun to abdicate and restored emperor. Began program of modernization. Borrowed western ideas.
Constitution written somewhat based on western ideas however parliament was very limited.
Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
Invaded Manchuria, China, Left League of Nations
Alliance system agreed to fight against Comm.
Surprise attack on US fleet. US declares war.
Victories & Losses
Japan took Much of western pacific and SE Asia early in war. US countered with Island hopping.
Hiroshima (Aug 6) & Nagasaki (Aug 9): America dropped atomic bombs. Over 120 k killed. Japan surrendered on Aug 14. 1st time in history - Japan is occupied.
US Occupation: Only occupier of Japan. Held trials for war crimes and disbanded military
Democracy: A new constitution was written by MacArthur, and women given vote power. Parliamentary power increased. Emperor’s power limited.
Military: Disbanded. Illegal to wage war and maintain.
“Economic Miracle: Quick recovery of the economy after WWII due to US aid and access to new technology and communication. After oil crisis of 70’s switch to “high tech” industries.
Work Ethic: Strong work ethic, work hard, willing to save.
Education: emphasis on educated, creative, flexible work force.
Imbalance of trade: Exports far more than imports. Causes international tension, especially with US.
Westernization: Adopted western styles and business techniques. Western culture became more popular. Travel abroad.
Traditions: Tea Ceremony, haiku, Kabuki and Zen traditions.