Location: Large Peninsula in South Asia
Mountain Passes: Himalayan Mts. Isolate but Passes allow invasion
Monsoons: seasonal winds that bring rain. Can bring flooding or drought.
River Valleys: Indus and Ganges Rivers
Harappa & Mohenjo Daro
Aryans (Sanskrit language, caste system, horse, iron)
Alexander the Great (Hellenistic culture)
Mauryas (Unified Empire)
World’s oldest religion
No one founder
Worship Brahma (creator) and other gods
Reward/ Punishment for way you lived your life.
Karma – the sum of your life’s actions.
Dharma – The rules of your caste. Your duty.
Samsara – Reincarnation
Mooksha – Becoming one with the universe.
By Birth. Rigid. Can not change except for re-birth.
4 main based on occupation
Untouchables. – Outcasts
Discrimination now illegal, but still exists.
Influence of Hinduism
Reincarnation but can attain Nirvana in one lifetime.
Usually no gods
Reject caste system.
Jainism – Extreme nonviolence
Sikhism – Mix of Hindu and Muslim beliefs.
Four Noble Truths
All life is suffering.
Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions
The only way to end suffering is to eliminate desire.
The way to end desire is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Following the Eightfold Path leads to Nirvana
Reasons: Trading bases in far east
1858 Sepoy Mutiny
National Congress party: Leader wanted independence for India
Passive Resistance: Nonviolent, Non-cooperation
Civil Disobedience: Refusal to obey unjust laws
Non- Violence: Suffer punishment with self control
Cottage industries: Boycott British goods and use Indian domestic system
Salt March: March to the sea to protest British tax.
Civil War/ Partition of India
Hindu vs. Muslim; India divided to end religious conflict
Pakistan (East&West) – Muslim
Mass migrations of people (10 –12 mil.)
Parliamentary -based on British Democracy
Jawaharial Nehru: 1st pm, wanted heavy industry
Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) birth control, suspended civil rights, assassinated.
Non-Alignment: Stayed neutral in cold war
Mixed Economy: socialism + capitalism
Overpopulation: Too many people, religion demands respect for life. Family planning sponsored by government resisted.
Capital: Foreign investment - $ leaves country
Religious rivalries: Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Christians (some boarder disputes)
Green Revolution: Using technology to increase food production has been very successful.