Location: East Asia
Size: 3rd Largest country: 1st in population
Population Density: 96% in East
2/3 of China is desert
Deserts and Mountains help to isolate China.
River Valleys: Chang(Yangtze) & Huang (Yellow)
Dynasties – Ruling Families
Mandate of Heaven: Divine right rulers; power comes from gods.
Ethnocentrism: foreigners are “Barbarians”; Great Wall to keep them out.
Technological Advances: Language, gunpowder
Orderly Society: Based on relationships/duties; inferior/superior
Family: most important, teaches correct behavior and loyalty. Patriarchal.
Respect: In all relationships will bring harmony to society.
(See India Notes for detailed description) Achieve happiness through prayerful contemplation.
Honor nature, follow instincts to live a simple life (balance)
Strong strict government.
Spheres of Influence - Imperialist countries took control of parts of China
Opium War: Britain took more control; Drugs devastated China
Boxer Rebellion: anti-European revolt: Crushed.
Open Door Policy: US Trade
Overthrow of Emperor: 1911 Q’ing (Manchu) dynasty overthrown by nationalists
Sun Yat-Sen was the Nationalist leader
3 Principles of the People: Nationalism, Democracy, Livelihood.
Based on Ideas of Karl Marx.
Mao Zedong: Communist Leader
Civil War: Communist vs. Nationalists
Mao promised peasants land reform
Drove Nationalists to Taiwan
Rule of Mao Zedong (1949 –1976)
Little Red Book
Collectivization: gov’t owned collective farms; peasants work for government.
5 year Plans: forced industrialization
Great Leap Forward: Commune system; loyalty to state not family
Cultural Revolution: “Thought reform” – Red Guard enforced Maoism, attacks on professionals, writers. Etc.
Rule of Deng Xaioping (1978-1997)
Population control: “1 Child” policy – sanctions for more – led to murder of girls.
Economic Development: 4 Modernizations: Agriculture, Industry, Science, Military
Some Capitalism – limited private ownership and Foreign investment
Tiananmen Square – Student protestors demanding democratic reform are fired upon by gov’t troops. 100s killed.
July 1 1997 – Hong Kong turned over to China. China agreed not to change Hong Kong social or economic system for 50 years and to allow a degree of self rule.
Overpopulation is a problem Population: 1,246,871,951 (July 1999 est.)
Trade issues with the US
Human Rights issues.
Status of Taiwan