Location: Continent of Africa south of the Sahara Desert
Rainforest: Hot, wet, - poor for farming
Deserts: Hot, dry – poor for farming.
Savannas: Grasslands – dry soil needs irrigation
Rivers: Rapids and waterfalls – Isolation.
Coastline: Smooth – poor harbors, trading difficult
Great Rift Valley
Origins of humans. Oldest tools found
Empires: Mali, Axum, Kush, Ghana, Songhai:
Largely subsistence agriculture;
Controlled trade route;
GOLD for Salt led to cultural diffusion
Animism: One supreme God; spirits and forces of nature in all living and non living things; ancestor worship; influenced art.
Grew with American colonies
Local wars undermined political structure
Robbed Africa of young strong and talented
Led to racism
Europeans looking for raw materials and markets, National prestige.
Mercantilism: colonies exist to benefit the mother country.
White man’s burden:
European racism: their right and duty to conquer Africa.
Africa for Africans
Led to a desire for Independence.
European colonialism provided education and common language
Ghana:Used strikes and boycotts. Gained independence in 1957. 1st African colony to gain independence. Organized the OAU.
Kenya: led Mau Maus, terrorized colonists, 1963 won independence
Tribalism: More loyalty to tribe than nation, which often followed colonial boundaries
Ties to European powers: Economic trading partners
Attempt Neutrality in Cold War
Subsistence farming. Growing only enough, not enough to sell.
Cash Crops: coffee, tea, grown to sell; crop failure means disaster.
Lack of investment capital. No $$, must borrow, large foreign debt
Land: 60% arid+drought = famine (Etheopia & Somalia)
Desertification: overgrazing and drought = loss of fertile land
Mineral: rich in mineral, but difficult to mine
Human: lack of skilled workers too many unskilled, little technology
Energy: little oil or coal; rich in water power but underdeveloped.
Many coup d’etas
Instability hurts economic development.
Republic of South Africa Apartheid: legal separation; majority (70%) forced to be separate. Whites controlled government and economy. Nelson Mandela: Leader of ANC: Jailed till 1990,1992 Apartheid ended. (Economic Sanctions)
Tribal wars (Hutus v. Tutsis) Millions dead or displaced.
1963 – Organization of African unity tried to eliminate dependence on outside areas and solve problems together.
Ethnic/Tribal differences have made this difficult to achieve.